Contained within this chapter is a summary of the eight established ways to teach within a TEFL classroom. An actual lesson may employ a combination of any of the eight methods – with an emphasis on ﬂexibility and a student-focused approach.
As explained above, there is not a single best way to deliver a lesson to your students. Your ESL classroom should be student focused and adaptive to change, therefore your teaching methods should also be adaptive and dynamic. Basically, this chapter is designed in order to best prepare you to deliver a lesson and achieve your desired objective.
The Grammar Translation approach was one of the ﬁrst adapted when teaching a foreign language. The general concept was that the student needed to convert the second language into their ﬁrst, in order to understand and comprehend the language. The student, however, does not naturally speak the second language. All other approaches are in some way or another, a derivative of this ﬁrst approach.
The two most appropriate of the eight approaches in an ESL classroom are the Communicative and Direct. These two approaches utilize the second language in a naturally free ﬂowing manner. Firstly, the Communicative Approach was speciﬁcally designed by educators in order to combat the inefficiencies with the Audio-Lingual and Grammar-translation approaches. The communicative approach applies functional and natural use of the language and allows the students to express their knowledge of the second language freely.
Secondly, The Direct Method seeks to immerse the learner in the same manner in which the ﬁrst language was learnt. Realia is heavily relied on and only English is spoken in the classroom. Grammar is taught intensively and students are encouraged to correct their own mistakes.
Assessment Category: Learner & Teacher Motivation